Bladder Cancer

 Bladder Cancer

  • Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. 
  • The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine.
  • Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) that line the inside of your bladder. 
  • Urothelial cells are also found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) that connect the kidneys to the bladder. 
  • Urothelial cancer can happen in the kidneys and ureters, too, but it’s much more common in the bladder.


Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include:-

  • Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola colored, though sometimes the urine appears normal and blood is detected on a lab test
  • Frequent urination
  • Painful urination
  • Back pain


  • Bladder cancer begins when cells in the bladder develop changes (mutations) in their DNA. 
  • A cell’s DNA contains instructions that tell the cell what to do.
  •  The changes tell the cell to multiply rapidly and to go on living when healthy cells would die.
  • The abnormal cells form a tumor that can invade and destroy normal body tissue.
  •  In time, the abnormal cells can break away and spread (metastasize) through the body.

Types of bladder cancer:-

  • Different types of cells in your bladder can become cancerous. 
  • The type of bladder cell where cancer begins determines the type of bladder cancer. 
  • Doctors use this information to determine which treatments may work best for you.
  • Types of bladder cancer include:-
  1. Urothelial carcinoma
  2. Squamous cell carcinoma
  3. Adenocarcinoma

Risk factors:-

  • Smoking
  • Increasing age
  • Being male
  • Exposure to certain chemicals
  • Previous cancer treatment
  • Chronic bladder inflammation. 
  • Personal or family history of cancer


Treatment options for bladder cancer depend on a number of factors, including the type of cancer, grade of the cancer and stage of the cancer, which are taken into consideration along with your overall health and your treatment preferences.

Bladder cancer treatment may include:-

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy in the bladder
  • Chemotherapy for the whole body.
  • Radiation therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted therapy
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