Kidney Cancer

 Kidney Cancer

  • Kidney cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in your kidney tissue. 
  • In time, these cells form a mass called a tumor. 
  • Cancer begins when something triggers a change in the cells, and they divide out of control.
  • A cancerous or malignant tumor can spread to other tissues and vital organs. When this happens, it’s called metastasis.
  • Kidney cancer is most common in people between the ages of 65 and 74. 
  • Men are twice as likely as women to develop the disease. 
  • It’s also more common in Native American and Black populations.

  Types of kidney cancer:-

There are different types of kidney cancer:-

  1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): This is the most common form of kidney cancer in adults and accounts for 85% of all kidney cancers. 
  • Renal cell carcinoma usually develops as a single tumor in one kidney, but it can affect both kidneys.
  • The cancer begins in the cells that line your kidney’s tubules. 
  • The most common type of RCC is clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
  1. Transitional cell cancer: Transitional cell carcinoma accounts for 6% to 7% of all kidney cancers.
  • This cancer usually begins in the area where your ureter connects to the main part of your kidney. This area is called your renal pelvis. 
  • Transitional cell carcinoma can also occur in your ureters or bladder.
  1. Renal sarcoma: This is the least common form of kidney cancer, accounting for only 1% of kidney cancer cases.
  •  It begins in the connective tissues of your kidneys and, if not treated, can spread to nearby organs and bones.
  1. Wilms tumor: This is the most common type of kidney cancer in children. It accounts for about 5% of kidney cancers.


Kidney cancer symptoms may include:-

  • Blood in your pee (hematuria).
  • A lump or mass in your kidney area.
  • Flank pain.
  • Tiredness.
  • A general sense of not feeling well.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Weight loss.
  • Low-grade fever.
  • Bone pain.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Anemia.
  • High calcium.


  • Smoking: People who smoke are at greater risk for kidney cancer. In addition, the longer a person smokes, the higher the risk.
  • Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for kidney cancer. In general, the more overweight a person is, the higher the risk.
  • High blood pressure: Also called hypertension, high blood pressure has been linked to an increased risk of kidney cancer.
  • Family history: People who have family members with kidney cancer may have an increased risk of developing cancer themselves.
  • Radiation therapy: Women who have been treated with radiation for cancer of their reproductive organs may have a slightly increased risk of developing kidney cancer.
  • Gene changes (mutations): Genes contain instructions for a cell’s function. Changes in certain genes can increase the risk of developing kidney cancer.
  • Long-term dialysis treatment: Dialysis is the process of cleaning your blood by passing it through a special machine. Dialysis is used when a person’s kidneys aren’t functioning properly.
  • Tuberous sclerosis complex: Tuberous sclerosis is a disease that causes seizures and intellectual disabilities, as well as the formation of tumors in many different organs.
  • Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL): People with this inherited disorder are at greater risk for developing kidney cancer. This disorder causes noncancerous tumors in your blood vessels, typically in your eyes and brain.


  • Urinanalysis
  • Blood tests
  • Ct scan
  • MRI
  • Ultrasound
  • Renal mass biopsy

Your healthcare provider uses information from various tests, including CT, MRI and biopsy, to determine the stage of cancer:-

  1. Stage I: The tumor is 7 centimeters (cm) across or smaller and is only in your kidney. It hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or other tissues.
  2. Stage II: The tumor is larger than 7 cm across but is still only in your kidney. It hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or other tissue.
  3. Stage III: The tumor has spread to your major blood vessels — your renal vein and inferior vena cava — or into the tissue surrounding your kidney or to nearby lymph nodes.
  4. Stage IV: The tumor has spread outside of your kidney to your adrenal gland or to distant lymph nodes or other organs.


  • Kidney cancer treatment depends on the stage and grade of the tumor, as well as your age and overall health. 
  • Options include:-
  1. Surgery
  2. Ablation
  3. Radiation therapy
  4. Targeted drug therapy
  5. Immunotherapy
  6. Chemotherapy.
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