Swelling in the Kidneys is often detected on an Ultrasound. Usually the swelling arises due to blockage in urine flow. Urine starts to collect in the kidney and causes pressure on the kidneys from Inside. The urinary pipe called the ureter may also begin to swell due to the collection of urine from within.
There are grades of this swelling which can indicate the level of the problem and the possible existing renal damage
|PCS fullness||This is the mildest form of swelling, but it does denote that the urine is not draining freely form the Kidneys|
|Mild||Mild Hydronephrosis means that the kidneys are working under pressure and there is ongoing renal damage|
|Moderate||Moderate Hydronephrosis indicates that the blockage has been present over some time and damage has taken place permanently to the kindey function. Large part of this damage may still be reversible|
|Severe||Severe Hydronephrosis is a sign of marked renal damage over a long period of time and in some cases the renal function may be completely lost|
|Gross||Gross Hydronephrosis is a form of severe hydronephrosis which is used to indicate that the kidney is practically non functioning|
Causes of Hydronephrosis
As discussed hydronephrosis invariably results from blockage of urine. Here are some common causes of blockage
- Stone in the kidney or urine pipe called the ureter
- Narrowing of the ureter called ureteric stricture
- Narrowing of junction of kidney and urine pipe called Pelvi-Ureteric Junction
- Reflux of urine back to kidneys due to defective valves (Called Vesico-Ureteric- reflux)
- Blockage in the Bladder mouth
- Blockage in the main urine pipe called urethra . See poor Flow
How can Hydronephrosis be treated ?
Hydronephrosis or swelling in the kidneys is treated based on the cause
|Stones||Small stones may pass with medicines but large ones may need Lithotripsy or Surgical Removal|
|PUJ Obstruction/ Stricture||Usually treated with Laparoscopic Surgery if DTPA Scan suggests damage to kidneys|
|Blockage in bladder or Urine Pipe||Usually managed with small endoscopic surgery|
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