- The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.
- Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer.
- Many prostate cancers grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, where they may not cause serious harm.
- However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.
- Prostate cancer that’s detected early — when it’s still confined to the prostate gland — has the best chance for successful treatment.
Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages.
Prostate cancer that’s more advanced may cause signs and symptoms such as:-
- Trouble urinating
- Decreased force in the stream of urine
- Blood in the urine
- Blood in the semen
- Bone pain
- Losing weight without trying
- Erectile dysfunction
- It’s not clear what causes prostate cancer.
- Doctors know that prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate develop changes in their DNA.
- A cell’s DNA contains the instructions that tell a cell what to do.
- The changes tell the cells to grow and divide more rapidly than normal cells do. The abnormal cells continue living, when other cells would die.
- The accumulating abnormal cells form a tumor that can grow to invade nearby tissue. In time, some abnormal cells can break away and spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.
Factors that can increase your risk of prostate cancer include:-
- Older age. Your risk of prostate cancer increases as you age. It’s most common after age 50.
- Race. For reasons not yet determined, Black people have a greater risk of prostate cancer than do people of other races. In Black people, prostate cancer is also more likely to be aggressive or advanced.
- Family history. If a blood relative, such as a parent, sibling or child, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your risk may be increased. Also, if you have a family history of genes that increase the risk of breast cancer (BRCA1 or BRCA2) or a very strong family history of breast cancer, your risk of prostate cancer may be higher.
- Obesity. People who are obese may have a higher risk of prostate cancer compared with people considered to have a healthy weight, though studies have had mixed results. In obese people, the cancer is more likely to be more aggressive and more likely to return after initial treatment.
You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:-
- Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables.
- Choose healthy foods over supplements
- Exercise most days of the week
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer
Depending on each case, treatment options for men with prostate cancer might include:-
- Observation or Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
- Surgery for Prostate Cancer
- Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- Cryotherapy for Prostate Cancer
- Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer
- Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer
- Targeted Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- Treatments for Prostate Cancer Spread to Bones