Testicular cancer

 Testicular Cancer

  • Testicular cancer is a growth of cells that starts in the testicles.
  •  The testicles, which are also called testes, are in the scrotum. 
  • The scrotum is a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. 
  • The testicles make sperm and the hormone testosterone.
  • Testicular cancer isn’t a common type of cancer. It can happen at any age, but it happens most often between the ages of 15 and 45.
  • The first sign of testicular cancer often is a bump or lump on a testicle.
  •  The cancer cells can grow quickly. They often spread outside the testicle to other parts of the body.
  • Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when it spreads to other parts of the body. 
  • Treatments depend on the type of testicular cancer that you have and how far it has spread. Common treatments include surgery and chemotherapy.


  • A lump or swelling in either testicle
  • A feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • A dull ache in the lower belly or groin
  • Sudden swelling in the scrotum
  • Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum
  • Enlargement or tenderness of the breast tissue
  • Back pain


  • It’s not clear what causes most testicular cancers.
  • Testicular cancer starts when something causes changes to the DNA of testicle cells. A cell’s DNA holds the instructions that tell the cell what to do. The changes tell the cells to grow and multiply quickly. The cancer cells go on living when healthy cells would die as part of their natural life cycle. This causes a lot of extra cells in the testicle that can form a mass called a tumor.
  • In time, the tumor can grow beyond the testicle. Some cells might break away and spread to other parts of the body. Testicular cancer most often spreads to the lymph nodes, liver and lungs. When testicular cancer spreads, it’s called metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells. The germ cells in the testicle make sperm. It’s not clear what causes DNA changes in the germ cells.

Stages of Testicular Cancer:-

We categorize testicular cancer into three stages:-

  • Stage I, when the cancer is only in the testicle with no evidence that it has spread
  • Stage II, when the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes in the abdomen or pelvis
  • Stage III, when the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the chest, lungs, liver, bones, or brain


Your recommended treatment plan will depend on:-

The type of testicular cancer you have: – 

  1. Whether it’s a seminoma or a non-seminoma
  2. The stage of your testicular cancer

Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery are the 3 main treatments for testicular cancer.

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